Annotated Bibliography: Instagram


Documents in English

Boy, John D. and Justus Uitermark. 2016. “How to Study the City on Instagram.” Plos One 11 (6): 1-16, accessed February 13, 2017,

This is an English article published in a Dutch academic journal. The article defines how Instagram through its use in the research of sociospatial patterns in the field of urban studies. The article introduces terms relevant to Instagram such as geotagging, (assigning a geographical tag to a photograph or video), as well as research terminology like “reciprocated recognition” which describes mutual liking and/or commenting. It also discusses the limitations of using data gleaned from Instagram. The article is pertinent due to its recent publication date, its clear definition of Instagram and its consistent use of the term as a proper noun.

Bruner, Raisa. 2016. “A Brief History of Instagram’s Fateful First Day.” Time.Com: 1-1, accessed February 13, 2017,

This short article closely defines Instagram by describing the first pictures uploaded to the application by its co-founders. The information is presented in English and provides a number of terms that are specifically associated with Instagram, for example, Valencia filter and square-format pictures. Despite the article being short and tailored to attract attention, it delivers interesting background information to Instagram’s definition. Its recent publication in a reputable magazine, Time magazine, makes it a pertinent reference. It also consistently uses Instagram as a proper noun in a style suitable for a North American audience.

Chaykowki, Kathleen. 2016. “Instagram’s Big Picture. (Cover Story).” Forbes 198 (2): 62-69, accessed February 13, 2017,

This is a short article written in original, North American English for the general public from a business standpoint. Interestingly, this article is mainly made up of photographs, apropos for an article focusing on the photo-sharing application, Instagram. It reports how Instagram’s CEO defines the application and therefore gives “behind the scenes” insight about Instagram. It defines the application more fully by presenting the way it is used by a variety of users. The information is pertinent given its recent publication and neutral language. It leaves the reader with the sense of having accessed unique and private information.

Kerpen, Dave. 2011. Likeable Social Media: How to Delight Your Customers, Create an Irresistible Brand, and be Generally Amazing on Facebook (and Other Social Networks). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Written by Dave Kerpen, cofounder and CEO of Likeable, an award-winning social media and word-of-mouth marketing firm, this book helps businesses market themselves by using social media. The author’s successful position in the social media world lends the book credibility. The language used in the book is quite informal but the topic of social media is as well. It is a fitting tone given the topic. The book takes a very general look at the term Instagram within the social media word. The information is pertinent despite it being published in 2011. Its status as a social media manual in marketing makes it a relevant reference.

Watkins, Brandi and Jason W. Lee. “Communicating Brand Identity on Social Media: A Case Study of the use of Instagram and Twitter for Collegiate Athletic Branding.” International Journal of Sport Communication 9 (4) (December 2016): 476-498.

This article explores the use of Instagram and Twitter to communicate brand identity. It is published in English, in a journal that disseminates peer-reviewed research, making it a credible source within the field of sport communication. The information is recent which makes it a pertinent reference. The article clearly defines Instagram and its use from a sport brand manager’s point of view. It is pertinent as it consistently uses Instagram as a proper noun and uses other associated terminology such as visual social media. It also compares Instagram with other social media which provides further contextual information useful in defining the term.

Documents in French

7) Di Quinzio, Cécilia, “Comment épater la galerie avec Instgram,” Stratégies, November 11, 2015, accessed February 13, 2017,,

This article is an original French text, published in France, in a digital marketing and communications magazine. It is aimed at those wishing to use Instagram to market their business. The language is neutral, with a marketing slant. This article looks at brands that are advertising on Instagram in an innovative way. It presents examples of how Instagram is used as part of its definition of the term such as Instagram as a place where brands have to come up with a new image on a regular basis, in a way that seems spontaneous. The information is pertinent due to its relatively recent publication and its consistent use of Instagram as a proper noun.

8) ICI Radio-Canada : Québec. “La ville de Québec dans l’œil d’Instagram,” ICI Radio-Canada : Québec, August 5, 2016, accessed February 13, 2017,

This short article presents an Instagram event that took place in the city of Québec. It is an original article written in French. The article is pertinent because in its description of Instagram it gives the reader more information and terminology about other aspects of the application, for example the Instagram event, Instameet, as well as the associated hashtag, #qcim16. The article’s publication on Radio-Canada’s news website as well as the Instameet being organized by Québec City Tourism, an official organization, lends the article credibility. The reference is pertinent due to its recent publication and its consistent use of Instagram as a proper noun.

9) Proulx, Serge, Mélanie Millette, and Lorna Heaton. 2012. Médias Sociaux : Enjeux Pour La Communication. Collection Communication. Québec: Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Published by Presses de l’Université du Québec in 2012, this book offers thought provoking reflections with a university level of language. It is an original French text. It is a collection of texts by different collaborators, each offering a different case study or topic. Although Instagram is not the focus of any particular chapter in the book, the term is mentioned and defined and is consistently used as a proper noun. The lack of specific attention to Instagram makes this reference a little less pertinent than some of the other references mentioned here but the ideas presented about social media generally are applicable and, therefore, relevant to Instagram.