Annotated Bibliography: Instagram


Documents in English

Boy, John D. and Justus Uitermark. 2016. “How to Study the City on Instagram.” Plos One 11 (6): 1-16, accessed February 13, 2017,

This is an English article published in a Dutch academic journal. The article defines how Instagram through its use in the research of sociospatial patterns in the field of urban studies. The article introduces terms relevant to Instagram such as geotagging, (assigning a geographical tag to a photograph or video), as well as research terminology like “reciprocated recognition” which describes mutual liking and/or commenting. It also discusses the limitations of using data gleaned from Instagram. The article is pertinent due to its recent publication date, its clear definition of Instagram and its consistent use of the term as a proper noun.

Bruner, Raisa. 2016. “A Brief History of Instagram’s Fateful First Day.” Time.Com: 1-1, accessed February 13, 2017,

This short article closely defines Instagram by describing the first pictures uploaded to the application by its co-founders. The information is presented in English and provides a number of terms that are specifically associated with Instagram, for example, Valencia filter and square-format pictures. Despite the article being short and tailored to attract attention, it delivers interesting background information to Instagram’s definition. Its recent publication in a reputable magazine, Time magazine, makes it a pertinent reference. It also consistently uses Instagram as a proper noun in a style suitable for a North American audience.

Chaykowki, Kathleen. 2016. “Instagram’s Big Picture. (Cover Story).” Forbes 198 (2): 62-69, accessed February 13, 2017,

This is a short article written in original, North American English for the general public from a business standpoint. Interestingly, this article is mainly made up of photographs, apropos for an article focusing on the photo-sharing application, Instagram. It reports how Instagram’s CEO defines the application and therefore gives “behind the scenes” insight about Instagram. It defines the application more fully by presenting the way it is used by a variety of users. The information is pertinent given its recent publication and neutral language. It leaves the reader with the sense of having accessed unique and private information.

Kerpen, Dave. 2011. Likeable Social Media: How to Delight Your Customers, Create an Irresistible Brand, and be Generally Amazing on Facebook (and Other Social Networks). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Written by Dave Kerpen, cofounder and CEO of Likeable, an award-winning social media and word-of-mouth marketing firm, this book helps businesses market themselves by using social media. The author’s successful position in the social media world lends the book credibility. The language used in the book is quite informal but the topic of social media is as well. It is a fitting tone given the topic. The book takes a very general look at the term Instagram within the social media word. The information is pertinent despite it being published in 2011. Its status as a social media manual in marketing makes it a relevant reference.

Watkins, Brandi and Jason W. Lee. “Communicating Brand Identity on Social Media: A Case Study of the use of Instagram and Twitter for Collegiate Athletic Branding.” International Journal of Sport Communication 9 (4) (December 2016): 476-498.

This article explores the use of Instagram and Twitter to communicate brand identity. It is published in English, in a journal that disseminates peer-reviewed research, making it a credible source within the field of sport communication. The information is recent which makes it a pertinent reference. The article clearly defines Instagram and its use from a sport brand manager’s point of view. It is pertinent as it consistently uses Instagram as a proper noun and uses other associated terminology such as visual social media. It also compares Instagram with other social media which provides further contextual information useful in defining the term.

Documents in French

7) Di Quinzio, Cécilia, “Comment épater la galerie avec Instgram,” Stratégies, November 11, 2015, accessed February 13, 2017,,

This article is an original French text, published in France, in a digital marketing and communications magazine. It is aimed at those wishing to use Instagram to market their business. The language is neutral, with a marketing slant. This article looks at brands that are advertising on Instagram in an innovative way. It presents examples of how Instagram is used as part of its definition of the term such as Instagram as a place where brands have to come up with a new image on a regular basis, in a way that seems spontaneous. The information is pertinent due to its relatively recent publication and its consistent use of Instagram as a proper noun.

8) ICI Radio-Canada : Québec. “La ville de Québec dans l’œil d’Instagram,” ICI Radio-Canada : Québec, August 5, 2016, accessed February 13, 2017,

This short article presents an Instagram event that took place in the city of Québec. It is an original article written in French. The article is pertinent because in its description of Instagram it gives the reader more information and terminology about other aspects of the application, for example the Instagram event, Instameet, as well as the associated hashtag, #qcim16. The article’s publication on Radio-Canada’s news website as well as the Instameet being organized by Québec City Tourism, an official organization, lends the article credibility. The reference is pertinent due to its recent publication and its consistent use of Instagram as a proper noun.

9) Proulx, Serge, Mélanie Millette, and Lorna Heaton. 2012. Médias Sociaux : Enjeux Pour La Communication. Collection Communication. Québec: Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Published by Presses de l’Université du Québec in 2012, this book offers thought provoking reflections with a university level of language. It is an original French text. It is a collection of texts by different collaborators, each offering a different case study or topic. Although Instagram is not the focus of any particular chapter in the book, the term is mentioned and defined and is consistently used as a proper noun. The lack of specific attention to Instagram makes this reference a little less pertinent than some of the other references mentioned here but the ideas presented about social media generally are applicable and, therefore, relevant to Instagram.



Critique: Pinterest

Critique: Pinterest

Pinterest is a really fun site to look at creative ideas from around the world. Personally, one of the reasons I have not gotten hooked beyond contemplating pictures on the various boards, finding out more about them is not always easy. There is a link included in the Pin enabling users to visit the original location of the post but it takes you to the general page and not to the actual article or picture that you are interested in. The topic in question may be far down the feed and difficult to find. Also, once the information is located, it is often lacking in detail and disappointing, especially for DIY projects. This happened to me a few times and discouraged me from further pursuing the site. That said, it can be a lovely place for frivolous window shopping.

A more concerning feature of Pinterest is issues about giving credit to the original author of the idea. Pinterest encourages people to get permission to post but at the same time it makes it easy to pin things seamlessly with one click. With this lack of difficulty, Pinterest is prompting its users to commit copyright infringement although in their terms of service they explicitly state that content posted should be either owned by the user or be non-infringing. This runs counter to their promotional material which says you can “save ideas from around the web with one click (Pinterest, 2017).” This is especially concerning for creators who are not receiving credit for their work. Particularly when, as described above, even if the origin of the Pin is enclosed, the information can be difficult to find within the site.


Pinterest:,  published 2017, accessed March 27, 2017.



Pinterest® – marque de commerce

Site de réseautage social ou des idées créatives sont partagées à partir de photo ou vidéo pour ensuite être sauvegardées en les épinglant sur des tableaux organisés par thèmes.

Remarques : les épingles viennent généralement de l’internet, mais les utilisateurs peuvent aussi télécharger celles qui proviennent de projets personnels. Les tableaux sont des endroits où les épingleurs peuvent conserver des idées intéressantes trouvées en ligne qu’ils veulent garder pour approfondir leur recherche ou pour des projets. Le bricolage, la nourriture et le voyage sont parmi les sujets les plus communs.

Sources :

Le Soleil : publié le 10 mai 2013, consulté le 25 mars, 2017.

Zoneart:, publié le 22 octobre 2014, consulté le 25 mars, 2017.

Pinterest® – marca registrada

Sitio de red social donde se puede compartir ideas creativas desde fotos o videos para después guárdalas pegándolas en unos tableros personales organizado por temas.

Comentarios: Pines vienen generalmente del Internet pero usuarios también pueden subirlos que son de sus proyectos personales. Los tableros son lugares donde usuarios pueden guardar ideas interesantes que encontraron en línea las cuales quieren investigar más o guardar para proyectos. Proyectos ‘hazlo tu mismo’, la comida y los viajes son algunos de los Pines más común.


El Pais:, publicado el 3 de junio, consultado el 25 de marzo 2017.

El Comercio:, publicado el 17 de marzo 2017, consultado el 25 de marzo 2017.

Pinterest® – registered trademark

A social networking site where creative ideas are shared via photos and videos, and then saved by being pinned to personal boards that are organized by theme.

Notes: Pins generally come from the Internet but users can also upload Pins of their own projects. Pinboards are spaces where Pinners can save interesting ideas they’ve found online for further research. DIY projects, food and travel are some of the most common Pins.


Wikipedia:, last modified March 25, 2017, viewed March 25, 2017.

The New Yorker :, published July 20, 2012, viewed March 25, 2017.

Critique: Google+

Critique: Google+

Google+ offers an interesting platform with which to connect with your social community. This includes people you already know but also those you do not know but have similar interests with. It provides a way to connect with larger communities that do not necessarily exist in your geographic location, for example: people who enjoy in photographing children’s toys staged in a real setting. Google+ provides a place where such passions can be displayed and shared with others who have the same soft spot. The fruit of this meeting of the minds can then be followed by other users. Google+ offers an exciting space where like-minded people can encounter and inspire each other. This is also enjoyable for those who act as an audience.

Previous criticisms of Google+ were that if you signed up for a Gmail address you were forced to also have a Google+ account. This is no longer the case. As well, Google+ requires a lot of personal information to open an account which is dubious coming from a company that then sells this data for targeted advertising. In general, it is good practice to give as little information as possible to these types of services because you do not necessarily know what is done with it. Having to use your real name and the fact that you can follow anybody on Google+ without them having to accept you can provide perfect ground for anyone who wants to stalk someone. It can be done without the user knowing. Thus, it is important to take steps to protect your identity while benefiting from the service.